NdFeB Rare Earth Magnets


  • NdFeB magnets, or neo-magnets, are the strongest permanent magnets available
  • They are made of a Nd2Fe14B alloy whose crystalline structure promotes a higher coercivity (i.e. resistance to demagnetization) than traditional magnets
  • They were developed in the 1980s independently by US General Motors and Sumitomo Corporation (Japan) to alleviate cobalt dependency of rare-earth magnet production
  • Cobalt is sometimes added in small quantities to increase the magnet Curie temperature (Tc) which means its magnetic field strength is increased at higher temperatures
  • Heavy rare earth elements such as dysprosium or terbium are substituted to neodymium to improve the coercivity at higher temperatures


  • NdFeB magnets have the highest energy density which allows the use of smaller magnets – miniaturization
  • About 50 % of current magnet sales (in $ value) are NdFeB magnets

  • Due to their strength, they are essential in many applications in everyday life (electronics, health care, energy efficient appliances) and to build a more sustainable future (EV, clean energy)

  • The forecasted increase of demand for NdFeB magnets is driven by the growth of clean energy sector and electric vehicles

  • The current global market for NdFeB is about 200,000 kg
  • The global demand is expected to increase by 70 % in 2030 
  • About 90 % of the global production is dominated by China
  • In 2030, about 84 % of China’s production would be used for domestic consumption which could lead to shortages in supply